The goalkeeper may pick up the ball whenever they want in the penalty box after an opponent last touched it, but they need to be wary when the ball comes back to them from one of their own teammates... If a teammate uses their head or chest to send the ball back, then the keeper is allowed to handle the ball.
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By having their hand/arm in such a position the player takes a risk of their hand/arm being hit by the ball and being penalized. scores in the opponents’ goal. directly from their hand/arm, even if accidental, including by the goalkeeper. immediately after the ball has touched their hand/arm, even if accidental.
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If your hands are protecting your face and the ball hits your hands, it’s not handball. If your hands were not in front of your face then the ball would stop when it hit your face. So you are not gaining any advantage. Be careful though, if your hands are protecting your face, your arms can be pointing outwards.
Summary: The IFAB Laws of the Game defines handball as “the deliberate act of a player making contact with the ball with the hand or arm”. The goalkeeper is exempt from this rule inside their penalty area, but has the same restrictions as any other player outside their box. A ball off the shoulder is not handball.
If the ball makes contact with a player’s arm or hands while their arm is close to their body or the ball comes directly from a close player, then the referee won’t award a penalty. Although in these circumstances, the ball has touched the player’s hand/arm, they have not committed a handball offense.
If the goalkeeper handles the ball outside of the box it will result in a freekick and a caution if; Yellow card – if the handball stops a promising attack; Red card – if the goalkeeper stops and obvious goalscoring opportunity ; Interesting Rule. If the goalkeeper throws the ball directly into the opponents’ goal, a goal kick is awarded. IFAB
The goalkeeper is just like any other player, except when he/she is inside the penalty box. The number one main difference is that inside the penalty box the goalkeeper can touch the ball with any part of their body, most importantly their hands. Rules for Goalies: Once in possession of the ball, they have 6 seconds to pass it to another player.
A goalie is in control of the ball when: the ball is between the goalie’s hands or. the ball is between the goalie’s hand and any surface such as the ground or their own body. the goalie is touching the ball with any part of the hands or arms, except when the ball bounces off the goalie or they are making a save.